Journal of Marine and Island Cultures

ISSN: 2212-6821

Comparative Study of Inscription Process of Islands Property on UNESCO's World Heritage List: Focusing on 'The Southwestern Coast Tidal Flats' in Korea and 'The Sacred Island of Okinoshima and Associated Sites in the Munakata Region' in Japan

Byoung-Sub Kim Korea Total Economic Institute

Received 19 December 2017, Accepted 27 December 2017, Available online 19 January 2018 10.21463/jmic.2017.06.2.04

Abstract

Efforts to inscribe 'The Southwestern Coast Tidal Flats' in Korea and 'The Sacred Island of Okinoshima and Associated Sites in the Munakata Region' in Japan on UNESCO's World Heritage List was proceeded in the similar period, but the result was different. 'The Sacred Island of Okinoshima and Associated Sites in the Munakata Region' in Japan was inscribed on UNESCO's World Heritage List in 2017 whereas 'The Southwestern Coast Tidal Flats' in Korea has been inscribed in the state of tentative list for seven years. The purpose of this study is to derive important factors necessary to proceed the inscription on UNESCO's World Heritage List on the local basis after making a comparative analysis on the inscription process of islands property such as 'The Southwestern Coast Tidal Flats' in Korea and 'The Sacred Island of Okinoshima and Associated Sites in the Munakata Region' in Japan through policy network model. Two enormous differences were found in the course of the Inscription on UNESCO's World Heritage List. In Japan, the shared awareness of the protection and utilization of property and furthermore the inscription on UNESCO's World Heritage List among actors is very firm, while in Korea it is not. In Japan, a variety of interest groups made a systematic participation and formed a governance in the local area, whereas in Korea, some experts and residents made a restricted participation due to the lead of government organizations.

Keywords

World Heritage, Policy Network, Southwestern Coast Tidal Flats, Tidal Flat Island, The Sacred Island of Okinoshima and Associated Sites in the Munakata Region

Introduction

A move to inscribe 'The Southwestern Coast Tidal Flats' in Korean peninsula which has many islands on UNESCO's World Heritage List has been seen amid growing awareness about the value of islands according to the increase of leisure life and the growth of tourism industry. In case of the inscription of 'The Southwestern Coast Tidal Flats' on UNESCO's World Heritage List, it is expected that 'The Southwestern Coast Tidal Flats' will attract many tourist to see them and contribute to the activation of local economy just because they have differential value as tidal flats.

In Japan that also has numerous islands like Korea, endeavors to develop islands on the regional development level after awareness of the their value have long been made. Japan keeps trying to inscribe its islands on UNESCO's World Heritage List as one of ways to elevate their value, and as a result of its continuous efforts, Yakushima Island was inscribed on UNESCO's World Heritage List in 1993 and Ogasawara Islands in 2011. After the inscription, regional development has been conspicuously made. It is expected that the inscription of 'The Sacred Island of Okinoshima and Associated Sites in the Munakata Region' located in Munakata City and Fukutsu City, Fukuoka Prefecture will lead to the major means to activate local economy.

The case of Japan's inscription of 'The Sacred Island of Okinoshima and Associated Sites in the Munakata Region' on UNESCO's World Heritage List will be regarded as many implications to Korea trying to inscribe 'The Southwestern Coast Tidal Flats' on UNESCO's World Heritage List. It is because two properties are heritages related to islands, local governments were involved, and the time to proceed the inscription on UNESCO's World Heritage List was in the similar period. It means that two cases are good ones to compare each other.1

This study is intended to compare the Inscription Process of 'The Southwestern Coast Tidal Flats' in Korea and 'The Sacred Island of Okinoshima and Associated Sites in the Munakata Region' in Japan on UNESCO's World Heritage List on local level. The inscription Process on UNESCO's World Heritage List is affected by various factors, but in the course of inscribing on UNESCO's World Heritage List, local governments of Korea and Japan are primarily responsible other than central government. In both of Korea and Japan, local governments actually start the inscription procedure, requesting central government to apply for the inscription of their desired properties on tentative list at UNESCO's World Heritage Centre. After central government reviews the desired properties, selects one, and applies for the inscription on tentative list, it finally participates in the inscription process on UNESCO's World Heritage List. After that, central government mainly plays a supervising and meditative part from the inscription on tentative list to the final inscription on UNESCO's World Heritage List. Local government plays an actual role in the inscription on UNESCO's World Heritage List, making up for requirements and fulfilling various activities.

The difference of policy process (inscription process on UNESCO's World Heritage List) does not contain all of the difference of policy outcome(final inscription UNESCO's World Heritage List). However, as there is no outcome without process, policy outcome of UNESCO's World Heritage List is deeply affected by policy process carried out on local level. Out of many models analyzing policy process, comparatively recent developed model is policy network. Policy network model is superior in flexibility, comprehensiveness, phenomenon-describing capability to any other models to analyze policy process (Kim, 2010: 181). Hence, this study tries to draw significant factors necessary to inscribe on UNESCO's World Heritage List, making a comparative analysis on inscription process of 'The Southwestern Coast Tidal Flats' and 'The Sacred Island of Okinoshima and Associated Sites in the Munakata Region' through policy network model.

Theoretical Consideration and Frame of Analysis

Diverse actors participate in policy process and policies are enforced through a series of mutual regulations among actors(Nam, 1999: 177). The important fact is that circumstances where actors can't achieve their goals without resources owned by other actors lie ahead of the actors participating in policy process (Kim et al., 2012: 178-179). Therefore, the actors try to form policy network and realize their interests.

Policy network model needs to be checked by separating policy environments from components of policy network. Policy environments are said to be environmental context limiting interactive relations among actors participating in policy network (Daugbjerg & Marsh, 1998: 61), and they are generally divided into geographical environment, political and economic environment, and social and cultural environment. The components of policy network are variables to analyze policy process, and actors, interactive relations, and the structure of network are widely used (Kim, 2010: 186-189).

This study embodies policy environments into the environments greatly affecting the inscription of properties islands retains on UNESCO's World Heritage List. In other words, this study specifies geographical environment as locational differences of the local area where properties are located, political and economical environment as the role of central government to inscribe on UNESCO's World Heritage List, and social and cultural environment as the awareness actors share concerning properties. Finally, this study sets the composing elements of policy network to organization and roles of actors, interests and common purposes of actors, different influences between actors and interactive relations between actors. This is because it is very useful to figure out what resources the actors participating in the inscription process have and what kind of actors lead the inscription process (Park, 2007: 48-51, 80-91).

This study is directed toward grasping the difference by comparing 3 factors of policy environments and 4 comprising elements of policy network in the course of inscribing 'The Southwestern Coast Tidal Flats' in Korea and 'The Sacred Island of Okinoshima and Associated Sites in the Munakata Region' in Japan on UNESCO's World Heritage List. This study also tries to find implications by considering how this difference affects the inscription process.

Frame of Analysis

Overview of Islands Property

a) 'The Southwestern Coast Tidal Flats' in Korea

'The Southwestern Coast Tidal Flats' are located in the southwestern part of Korean Peninsula. In the year of 2010 when 'The Southwestern Coast Tidal Flats' were inscribed on tentative list, they covered the tidal flats of Gochang-gun and Buan-gun, Jeollabuk-do, and Suncheon-si, Boseong-gun, Muan-gun, Shinan-gun, Jeollanam-do. After a few changing processes, tidal flats of Seocheon-gun, Chungcheongnam-do, Gochang-gun, Jeollabuk-do, and Suncheon-si, Boseong-gun, Shinan-gun, Jeollanam-do are sought to be inscribed on UNESCO's World Heritage List from 2015 on. The whole area of the tidal flats is about 59,000ha, and ShinanDadohae Tidal flat in Shinan-gun is about 45,000ha and it occupies 76.3% of the whole area.

Location of The Southwestern Coast Tidal Flats (source: World Heritage Promotion Team of Korean Tidal Flats. http://www.ktidalflats-heritage.com/)

Location, whole area, and law for the protection are as shown in table-1. The whole area to be inscribed is designated as Wetland Protection Area according to Wetland Conservation Act and also is registered as Ramsar Wetland acccording to Ramsar Convention.

Major Facts of The Southwestern Coast Tidal Flats
property location gross area law for protection
Seocheon Yubu Island Tidal Flat Seocheon-gun, Chungcheongnam-do 3,000ha domestic Wetlands Conservation Act, Wetland Protection Area(designated in 2008)
international Ramsar Convention, Ramsar wetlands (registered in 2009)
Gochang Tidal Flat Gochang-gun, Jeollabuk-do 4,500ha domestic Wetlands Conservation Act, Wetland Protection Area (designated in 2007)
international 1. Ramsar Convention, Ramsar wetlands (registered in 2010)
2. UNESCO, Biosphere Reserve (designated in 2013)
Suncheon Bay Tidal Flat Suncheon-si, Jeollanam-do 3,000ha domestic 1. Wetlands Conservation Act, Wetland Protection Area(designated in 2003)
2. Cultural Properties Protection Law, Scenic Spot(designated in 2006)
international Ramsar Convention, Ramsar wetlands (registered in 2006)
Boseong-Beolgyo Tidal Flat Boseong-gun, Jeollanam-do 3,500ha domestic Wetlands Conservation Act, Wetland Protection Area (designated in 2003)
international Ramsar Convention, Ramsar wetlands (registered in 2006)
ShinanDadohae Tidal Flat Shinan-gun, Jeollanam-do 45,000ha domestic 1. Wetlands Conservation Act, Wetland Protection Area(designated in 2010)
2. Natural Park Law, Tidal Flat of Jeollanam-do (designated in 2008/enlarged in 2013)
international 1. Ramsar Convention, Ramsar wetlands (registered in 2011)
2. UNESCO, Biosphere Reserve (designated in 2009)
Source: World Heritage Promotion Team of Korean Tidal Flats. http://www.ktidalflats-heritage.com/

'The Southwestern Coast Tidal Flats' are sought to be inscribed on UNESCO's World Natural Heritage List, and World Heritage Promotion Team of Korean Tidal Flats insists that 'The Southwestern Coast Tidal Flats' satisfies all the inscription criteria (VII), (VIII), (IX), (X) (World Heritage Promotion Team of Korean Tidal Flats. http://www.ktdalflats-heritage.com/). Main arguments of World Heritage Promotion Team of Korean Tidal Flats are as follows. The ecological and cultural landscape of 'The Southwestern Coast Tidal Flats' is excellent because it has narrow roads and salt pans naturally formed alongside the clean tidal flat and traditional villages closely connected with narrow roads (inscription criterion VII). 'The Southwestern Coast Tidal Flats' are island tidal flats where tidal flat and islands spread along the bedrock coast and it is a rare case not found in any other areas in the world. Island tidal flats have, in itself, different intertidal zones according to the influence of direction and tide. Sedimentary layers of intertidal zones repeat the change from fine-textured mud to sand. This characteristics are found only in this area in the world (inscription criterion VIII). Natural ecological transfer from tidal flat ecosystem to dune ecosystem to mountain ecosystem is well shown in these tidal flats inspite of the short distance from coast to land (inscription criterion IX). 'The Southwestern Coast Tidal Flats' also serve as a pit stop for 300 different kinds of migratory birds that are estimated to be over one million. Especially, 20 different kinds of internationally endangered birds such as Chinese Egret and Spoon-billed Sandpiper, including Black-faced Spoonbill, stop over in 'The Southwestern Coast Tidal Flats'. In addition, the fact that the number of benthos is 573 means these tidal flats show high biodiversity (inscription criterion X).

b) 'The Sacred Island of Okinoshima and Associated Sites in the Munakata Region' in Japan

'The Sacred Island of Okinoshima and Associated Sites in the Munakata Region' are in Kyushu area located southwest from the Japanese archipelago. 5 properties, which are located in Okinoshima Island and Oshima Island in Korea Strait and mainland in Fukuoka Prefecture adjacent to Korea Strait, are incribed on UNESCO's World Cultural Heritage List in July, 2017.2

Location of The Sacred Island of Okinoshima and Associated Sites in the Munakata Region (source: World Heritage Promotion Committee of “Okinoshima Island and Related Sites in the Munakata Region”. http://www.okinoshima-heritage.jp/en/)

5 properties are Okitsu-miya of Munakata Taisha, Okitsu-miya Yohaisho of Munakata Taisha, Nakatsu-miya of Munakata Taisha, Hetsu-miya of Munakata Taisha and Shimbaru-Nuyama Mounded Tomb Group. Okitsu-miya of Munakata Taisha is located in Okinoshima Island, all of which is designated as historical site. Okitsu-miya Yohaisho of Munakata Taisha and Nakatsu-miya of Munakata Taisha are located in Oshima Island. Hetsu-miya of Munakata Taisha and Shimbaru-Nuyama Mounded Tomb Group are located in the mainland Kyushu. All of 5 properties are designated as historic sites according to Cultural Properties Protection Law. There is a buffer zone in the neighboring area of 5 properties. The whole area of 5 properties is 98.93ha and the entire area of the buffer zone is 79,363.48ha (UNESCO World Heritage Centre. http://whc.unesco.org/en/).

Major Facts of The Sacred Island of Okinoshima and Associated Sites in the Munakata Region
property location law for protection
Okitsu-miya of Munakata Taisha Munakata City, Fukuoka Prefecture (Okinoshima Island) cultural properties precinct (whole island): historical site
neighboring area buffer zone
Okitsu-miya Yohaisho of Munakata Taisha Munakata City, Fukuoka Prefecture (Oshima Island) cultural properties precinct: historical site
neighboring area buffer zone
Nakatsu-miya of MunakataTaisha Munakata City, Fukuoka Prefecture (Oshima Island) cultural properties precinct: historical site
one building: tangible cultural property designated by Fukuoka Prefecture
neighboring area buffer zone
Hetsu-miya of MunakataTaisha Munakata City, Fukuoka Prefecture (mainland Kyushu) cultural properties precinct: historical site
two buildings: important cultural properties
neighboring area buffer zone
Shimbaru-Nuyama Mounded Tomb Group Fukutsu City, Fukuoka Prefecture (mainland Kyushu) cultural properties precinct: historical site
neighboring area buffer zone
Source: World Heritage Promotion Committee of “Okinoshima Island and Related Sites in the Munakata Region”. http://www.okinoshima-heritage.jp/en/
Buffer Zone of The Sacred Island of Okinoshima and Associated Sites in the Munakata Region (source: World Heritage Promotion Committee of “Okinoshima Island and Related Sites in the Munakata Region”. http://www.okinoshima-heritage.jp/en/)

According to UNESCO World Heritage Centre, Okinoshima Island is the place where active overseas trade between the Japan archipelago and the continent was made from the early fourth century to the late ninth century. At that time, in Okinoshima Island, lots of rituals were performed to pray for safe voyage and trade success. Increasingly, the island itself became the object of worship and was developed to religion, and the tradition has been inherited up to this day. UNESCO World Heritage Centre judged those facts to fit the inscription criteria (II), (III), (IV) (UNESCO World Heritage Centre. http://whc.unesco.org/en/).

'The Sacred Island of Okinoshima and Associated Sites in the Munakata Region' have shown the exchange of view of value in the East Asia from the fourth century to the ninth century through the changes of ancient rituals. People in the Munakata Region overcame the danger of sailing and played a great role in overseas trade in the sea area between the Japan archipelago and the Korean peninsula. As Okinoshima Island located in this sea area was placed in the important sea route, it was looked up to as a guardian angel and a lot of precious treasures made from the most advanced technology were dedicated to Okinoshima Island. The changes of Okinoshima rituals reflect the aspects of vigorous trade in the East Asia. New cultures and good commodities imported from the continent through trade contributed to all aspects of development in politics, society and religion (inscription criterion II).

'The Sacred Island of Okinoshima and Associated Sites in the Munakata Region' are a unique case showing that cultural tradition worshipping a sacred island has been passed down up to this day. In Okinoshima Island worshipped for over 1,500 years, rituals using huge amount of offerings were performed from the fourth century to the ninth and the historical sites showing the changes of ancient rituals have been preserved and passed down up to this day. The Okinoshima rituals based on nature worship changed into the form of looking up to three goddesses, and they have been worshipped in Okinoshima Island, Oshima Island, and mainland Kyushu since the seventh century. The Shimbaru-Nuyama Mounded Tomb Group made in the fifth to the sixth century proves the presence of the Munakata clan performing trade between the Japan archipelago and the continent and making the tradition of religion through the leading of the Okinoshima rituals (inscription criterion III).

Belief in Okinoshima Island was made by the people who engaged in the dangerous maritime activity and has been passed down up to this day by the local area's mental, cultural tradition such as controlling the entrance and the exit of the island. Belief in Okinoshima Island was written in Kojiki and Nihonshoki and it shows the stage of forming a native belief of Japan (inscription criterion IV).

Comparative Analysis of Inscription Process of World Heritage List

a) Comparative Analysis of Policy Environments

Conditions of a Location

'The Southwestern Coast Tidal Flats' in Korea and 'The Sacred Island of Okinoshima and Associated Sites in the Munakata Region' in Japan are both located in the island and the coast far away from the metropolitan area. In Korea, Seocheon-gun, Gochang-gun, Suncheon-si, Boseong-gun, and Shinan-gun, all of which include 'The Southwestern Coast Tidal Flats', are not industrialized areas, and the population of the above-mentioned areas is stagnant or decreasing.3 In Japan, Munakata City and Fukutsu City both of which include 'The Sacred Island of Okinoshima and Associated Sites in the Munakata Region' are also not an industrialized area and the population of the two cities is stagnant or slightly increasing.4

The local area where two properties are located is a low-populated small city or an area of agricultural and fishing village and is far away from the metropolitan area. The local area having these conditions of a location is basically favorable for tourism industry (Choi, 2004: 25-26). The inscription process of their properties on UNESCO's World Heritage List is an attractive method to promote tourism industry. Moreover, as two properties are located in the island and the coast, they can be used as tourism attractions different from the land.

Role of Central Government

Both in Korean and Japan, the role of central government for the inscription of UNESCO's World Heritage List is basically to select properties to recommend to the UNESCO's World Heritage Centre, supervise the preparations of local government, and serve as a passageway between local government and the UNESCO's World Heritage Centre.

However, in Korea, Cultural Heritage Administration of Central Government started to proceed the inscription of 'The Southwestern Coast Tidal Flats' on UNESCO's World Heritage List. Cultural Heritage Administration surveyed the objects of tentative list in 2007 and finalized them in 2008. Cultural Heritage Administration drew up the application of tentative list after collecting opinions of local governments and submitted it to the UNESCO's World Heritage Centre. World Heritage Promotion Team of Korean Tidal Flats in charge of inscription process was established in 2014 (World Heritage Promotion Team of Korean Tidal Flats (http://www.ktidalflats-heritage.com/). Korea, other than Japan, exhibited a feature that central government was involved in the selection of properties to be inscribed on UNESCO's World Heritage List from the beginning.

Awareness of Property

It was since the 2000s that the importance of 'The Southwestern Coast Tidal Flats' gained awareness in earnest. In Korea, tidal flats were regarded as the objects of reclamation or landfill. Since late 1990s, the ecological and economical value of tidal flats began to receive attention (Choi, 2001: 34-36). Wetlands Conservation Act to protect tidal flats was enacted in 1999, and they were designated as Wetland Protection Area in 2003.

Out of local areas where 'The Southwestern Coast Tidal Flats' are located, Suncheon-si was aware of the importance of tidal flats for the first place. The citizen's campaign to object to aggregate extraction arose in 1997, and as a result, Suncheon Bay was designated as Wetland Protection Area in 2003. Since the year of 2004, Suncheon-si not only has tried to protect Suncheon Bay but to utilize it as tourism resources by making coastal wetlands (Suncheon Bay Wetland Reserve. http://www.suncheonbay.go.kr/).

Even though 'The Southwestern Coast Tidal Flats' were inscribed on tentative list in 2010, the importance of tidal flats was recognized by residents but not firmly shared. Even after the inscription of tentative list, there was a local government to withdraw the inscription on UNESCO's World Heritage List. For this reason, World Heritage Promotion Team of Korean Tidal Flats held presentation meetings several times (World Heritage Promotion Team of Korean Tidal Flats. http://www.ktidalflats-heritage.com/).

In Japan, other than in Korea, 'The Sacred Island of Okinoshima and Associated Sites in the Munakata Region' have been recognized as an important property. Okinoshima Island has been considered the object of belief for over 1500. After Munakata Taisha possessed Okitsu-miya of Munakata Taisha, Okitsu-miya Yohaisho of Munakata Taisha, Nakatsu-miya of Munakata Taisha, Hetsu-miya of Munakata Taisha, it consistently holds various festivals with residents every year(Munakata Taisha(Shrine) http://www.munakata-taisha.or.jp/).

b) Comparative Analysis of Composing Elements of Policy Network

Organization and Roles of Actors

The organization to execute the inscription process of 'The Southwestern Coast Tidal Flats' on UNESCO's World Heritage List is World Heritage Promotion Team of Korean Tidal Flats. Chairman of the board of World Heritage Promotion Team of Korean Tidal Flats is vice administrative governor of Jeollanam-do as of today. Vice administrative governor of Chungcheongnam-do, vice administrative governor of Jeollabuk-do, county governor of Seocheon-gun, county governor of Gochang-gun, mayor of Suncheon-si, county governor of Boseong-gun, county governor of Shinan-gun, and deputy manager of Cultural Heritage Administration get involved in World Heritage Promotion Team of Korean Tidal Flats as directors. Under the board of directors is the Inscription Promotion Board, in which practical officials of local governments, representatives of residents, general managers of Cultural Heritage Administration and Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries take part.

World Heritage Promotion Team of Korean Tidal Flats performs the mission to preserve and manage the tidal flats after inscribing them on UNESCO's World Heritage List, do the study and research, cooperate with residents, promote and seek a domestic and international cooperation, and assist supports and businesses concerning the inscription on UNESCO's World Heritage List.

The organization which proceeded the inscription process of 'The Sacred Island of Okinoshima and Associated Sites in the Munakata Region' on UNESCO's World Heritage List was World Heritage Promotion Committee of “Okinoshima Island and Related Sites in the Munakata Region”. The committee is the organization jointly established by Fukuoka Prefecture, Munakata City and Fukutsu City. The executive office of the committee is in Fukuoka Prefecture. Many organizations such as economic organizations, representatives of residents, cultural and educational organizations, and administrative institutions are involved in this committee. Economic organizations include chambers of commerce, agricultral cooperative associations, fishermen's cooperative associations, tourism association. Representatives of residents include local community management councils and Machizukuri promotion councils. Cultural and educations organizations include expert groups, local universities, Munakata Taisha and Miyajidake Jinja. Administrative institutions include local government and local educational board. Central government, other than Korea, is not involved in the committee and distinctly shows that various local members participate in it.

World Heritage Promotion Committee of “Okinoshima Island and Related Sites in the Munakata Region” performs the mission to write a letter of recommendation to inscribe on UNESCO's World Heritage List, submit it to the UNESCO's World Heritage Centre, promote the properties, and do the study and research. The committee, other than Korea, does not perform the mission to preserve and manage properties, and cooperate with residents. As Munakata Taisha possesses properties, it is primarily in charge of preserving properties. As local educational board makes an administrative support, the committee doesn't have to do the separate mission. Just because various local residents take part in many events related to the properties, the committee, unlike Korea, doesn't have to carry out separate task.

Interests and Common Purposes of Actors

Actors involved in World Heritage Promotion Team of Korean Tidal Flats and World Heritage Promotion Committee of “Okinoshima Island and Related Sites in the Munakata Region” have common goals to inscribe properties on UNESCO's World Heritage List.

Main body of World Heritage Promotion Team of Korean Tidal Flats is a governmental organization. The governmental organization is mainly interested in activating local economy through the inscription on UNESCO's World Heritage List. A governmental organization in the underdeveloped area tries to lead the local area's development through tourism (Kyunghyang Daily News. 01/10/2016). Expert group does research and consultation in their field. The representatives of residents want to proceed the inscription of properties on UNESCO's World Heritage List in the way any damages does not happen to them and as a result, the inscription contributes to their income (Gochang Management News. 06/25/2015).

The economic organizations and administrative institutions involved in World Heritage Promotion Committee of “Okinoshima Island and Related Sites in the Munakata Region” is mainly interested in basically activating local economy. Munakata Taisha, the owner of the properties, takes an interest in making its belief well-known widely. The representatives of residents are much interested in making their area much prouder.

Different Influences Between Actors

Influences between actors depend on the resources they own. The inscription process on UNESCO's World Heritage List is basically the business a governmental organization has to treat using administrative power. In Korea, central government has many influences while in Japan local government performing actual business has many influences. Especially, Fukuoka Prefecture, integrated administration, plays a key role in inscribing the properties on UNESCO's World Heritage List, set up the executive office of World Heritage Promotion Committee of “Okinoshima Island and Related Sites in the Munakata Region”.

In Japan, it is possible to inscribe the properties on UNESCO's World Heritage List only when Munakata Taisha, the owner of the properties, makes a good preservation. On the contrary, in Korea, as the tidal flats mix state-owned land and private land, the management authority is diversified. This is the reason why the influence of Munakata Taisha in Japan is much bigger than that of owners in Korea.

Both in Korea and Japan, specialty of experts is absolutely needed to preserve all the properties. In Korea, experts are individually involved in World Heritage Promotion Team of Korean Tidal Flats while in Japan, the local universities and local educational board are systematically involved in World Heritage Promotion Committee of “Okinoshima Island and Related Sites in the Munakata Region” and relatively have much influence on it.

In Korea, Residents have influenced by bringing civil complaints in the course of inscribing on UNESCO's World Heritage List. As only 5 residents representing their city and counties are involved in World Heritage Promotion Team of Korean Tidal Flats, their influence power is very limited. There is no group of residents organized in relation to tidal flats. Only in case economic damages occur, it is seen that they pose a problem (Moodeung Daily News. 09/12/2017). In Japan, on the contrary, the resident organizations which have been around for a long time are involved in World Heritage Promotion Committee of “Okinoshima Island and Related Sites in the Munakata Region”, hold various festivals with Munakata Taisha, and relatively have much influence on it.

Interactive Relations Between Actors

Interactive relations between actors can be divided into strong cooperation, weak cooperation, weak conflict, and strong conflict. This study considers strong cooperation sharing of resources owned by actor, weak cooperation sharing of the awareness of proceeding the inscription on UNESCO's World Heritage List. This study also consider weak conflict not sharing of the awareness of proceeding the inscription on UNESCO's World Heritage List and strong conflict occurrence of dispute between actors.

It is considered that in Japan, all the actors involved in World Heritage Promotion Committee of “Okinoshima Island and Related Sites in the Munakata Region” showed strong cooperation. Actors share the resources they own and are sought to inscribe them on UNESCO's World Heritage List. In other words, After government share administrative power, Munakata Taisha, the owner of the properties, preservation and holding of festivals, residents joint holding of festivals, and experts specialty in research and study, they proceeded to inscribe the properties on UNESCO's World Heritage List.

In Korea, on the contrary, strong conflicts between governments are seen. The fact that there is a government leaving in the course of inscribing on UNESCO's World Heritage List exemplifies the case. Strong conflicts between government and residents are also seen. The case that residents objected to the inscription process due to the economic damage is an example of strong conflict. There is even the case that World Heritage Promotion Team of Korean Tidal Flats has to keep holding presentations as residents don't share the awareness of the inscription on UNESCO's World Heritage List (Jeonbuk Daily News. 05/13/2015). That means that weak conflict bewteen government and residents is seen. Conflict between governments involved in World Heritage Promotion Team of Korean Tidal Flats is not seen up to this day in 2017. In conclusion, it is thought that cooperation and conflict between actors complexly occur in Korea.

Conclusion

After reviewing the inscription process of 'The Southwestern Coast Tidal Flats' in Korea and 'The Sacred Island of Okinoshima and Associated Sites in the Munakata Region' in Japan on UNESCO's World Heritage List, the difference of the awareness on the properties is greatly found. The shared awareness on protection and utilization of properties and furthermore the inscription process does not exist in Korea. In Japan, on the contrary, as all actors share the worship tradition which has been passed down up to this day for over 1500 years on the sacred island, and show united awareness on protection and utilization of the properties and the inscription process on UNESCO's World Heritage List.

In Korea, central government is mainly involved in the inscription process on UNESCO's World Heritage List, whereas in Japan local government plays a leading role. In Japan, various interests groups in the local area are systematically involved in the inscription process and forms governance while in Korea central government plays a major role and residents and experts are limitedly involved.

In Korea, as the awareness on the properties between actors is not shared, many conflicts are seen due to the government lead of the inscription process. In Japan, on the contrary, as the awareness on the properties between actors is shared, strong cooperation is seen due to the local government lead and participation of various interests group.

Considering the case of inscription process of 'The Sacred Island of Okinoshima and Associated Sites in the Munakata Region' on UNESCO's World Heritage List, it is thought that sharing the awareness on properties of tidal flats is very urgent to inscribe them. Efforts to keep holding events related to tidal flats and change the awareness on them should be continuously made. In addition to that, various interests groups should participate in the inscription process of them on UNESCO's World Heritage List and share the resources they possess.

Endnotes

The Southwestern Coast Tidal Flats' were inscribed on tentative list in 2010 and 'The Sacred Island of Okinoshima and Associated Sites in the Munakata Region' in 2009.
Annexed islands of Okinoshima Island are separately inscribed according to UNESCO's World Heritage List (UNESCO World Heritage Centre. http://whc.unesco.org/en/).
The population change from 2010 to 2015 is as follows. Seocheon-gun: 60,848 → 56,910, Gochang-gun: 60,816 → 60,046, Suncheon-si: 274,195 → 280,594, Boseong-gun: 48,792 → 45,349, Shinan-gun: 45,836 → 44,020.
The population change from 2010 to 2015 is as follows. Munakata City: 95,501 → 96,516, Fukutsu City: 55,431 → 58,781.

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