Journal of Marine and Island Cultures

ISSN: 2212-6821


v6n2, 2017

  1. Tourism livelihoods in Smøla, Norway Ilan Kelman, John Linnell, Jørn Thomassen, Arne Follestad, & Thomas Risan 10.21463/jmic.2017.06.2.01

    Tourism in islands and archipelagos provides numerous advantages and disadvantages. This paper analyses a previously unpublished case study of island tourism livelihoods from the archipelago of Smøla, Norway, examining the pros and cons of implemented or proposed tourism livelihoods based on a snapshot from 2008-2009. Smøla’s tourism livelihoods are categorised by nature, technology focusing on the wind farm, fishing and hunting, cultural landscapes, culture, and history. As with many other island and archipelago case studies, the most suitable approach could be tourism-supplemented, rather than tourism-dependent, livelihoods with the principal challenge being finding the right scale for Smøla’s tourism livelihoods. This paper does not provide a theoretical contribution, but adds a spatially and temporally focused case study to the literature.

    cultural landscapes, nature, tourists, wind farms

  2. AbstractKeywords

    Choi Nam-Seon placed critical importance on how the seas were depicted in Korean literary works during the Japanese colonial period. While studying in Japan, Choi majored in geography and history, examining the relationship amongst a nation’s land, history, and culture. Choi’s identification with the child and the sea began ever since he founded the magazine, Sonyeon(Boy), in 1908. In 1927, he reintroduced Samgukyusa (The Retained History of Three Kingdoms) — a representative Korean mythological literary work transported to Japan during the Japanese Invasion of Korea in 1592 — along with a preface. Choi did not merely reintroduce Korea’s native mythological work, but he also went on to directly confront the Tangun Negation Theory and the Monk’s Nonsense Theory claimed by Japan. To go on further, Choi countered the statement that Korea’s geographical shape was one that of a fearful rabbit. Instead, he actively utilized the theory that Korea was shaped like a courageous tiger. Choi approached the marine mythologies within Samgukyusa in two ways. Firstly, he focused on acceptability, in which people from different cultures strove to find a way to live together in peace and harmony through the sea. Secondly, he focused on the marine mythologies which possess the spirit of pioneering – one that endeavored to reach new worlds through the sea.

    Samgukyusa (The Retained History of Three Kingdoms), Choi Nam-Seon, sea, marine inclusivity, marine challenge

  3. AbstractKeywords

    Coastal cultural resources provide crucial links to the past and are important centerpieces for interwoven maritime heritage community narratives, and are valuable cultural resources. Similar to many other places in the world, in southeastern NC, natural and environmental factors such as storms, erosion and climate change have caused damages to, and continue to threaten, cultural heritage in different ways. Categorizing the level of importance of these sites and prioritizing actions for their preservation can not only facilitate preserving some sites, but also contribute to our understanding about the past, before these assets vanish from coastal areas. However, a full understanding of the different factors that affect different cultural assets does not yet exist. In order to prioritize our actions regarding cultural heritage management, a thorough study on the impact of natural and environmental factors on coastal cultural heritage is necessary. A research synthesis, which includes a systematic review of literature and previous experiences, and various data analyses result in new knowledge about the probable future state of coastal cultural heritage in Brunswick County. The result is a set of risk maps for coastal cultural heritage in Brunswick County that can assist managers and policy makers to prioritize their actions regarding conservation, preservation and management of coastal cultural heritage.

    Dynamic coasts, maritime heritage, community narratives, Brunswick County, North Carolina

  4. AbstractKeywords

    Efforts to inscribe 'The Southwestern Coast Tidal Flats' in Korea and 'The Sacred Island of Okinoshima and Associated Sites in the Munakata Region' in Japan on UNESCO's World Heritage List was proceeded in the similar period, but the result was different. 'The Sacred Island of Okinoshima and Associated Sites in the Munakata Region' in Japan was inscribed on UNESCO's World Heritage List in 2017 whereas 'The Southwestern Coast Tidal Flats' in Korea has been inscribed in the state of tentative list for seven years. The purpose of this study is to derive important factors necessary to proceed the inscription on UNESCO's World Heritage List on the local basis after making a comparative analysis on the inscription process of islands property such as 'The Southwestern Coast Tidal Flats' in Korea and 'The Sacred Island of Okinoshima and Associated Sites in the Munakata Region' in Japan through policy network model. Two enormous differences were found in the course of the Inscription on UNESCO's World Heritage List. In Japan, the shared awareness of the protection and utilization of property and furthermore the inscription on UNESCO's World Heritage List among actors is very firm, while in Korea it is not. In Japan, a variety of interest groups made a systematic participation and formed a governance in the local area, whereas in Korea, some experts and residents made a restricted participation due to the lead of government organizations.

    World Heritage, Policy Network, Southwestern Coast Tidal Flats, Tidal Flat Island, The Sacred Island of Okinoshima and Associated Sites in the Munakata Region

  5. AbstractKeywords

    Selected Island populations of South Korea were interviewed and landscapes surveyed in the Southwestern ocean region to discern what cultural changes they had noted in response to environmental changes possibly due to climate change impacts. Utilizing Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) methodology, cultural behaviors and patterns of island populations were easily identified, along with historical information of changes occurring for islanders in the areas of lifestyle, adaptation, and utilization of natural resources. This TEK information is being fragmented and is at risk within the current structure of island system operations.

    Traditional Ecological Knowledge, TEK, Traditional Knowledge, TK, Indigenous Knowledge, IK, South Korea, Culture, Multidisciplinary Research, Interdisciplinary research, Korean Islands

  6. AbstractKeywords

    The merlion is a figure that comprises the upper half of a lion and the lower half of a fish. In an earlier issue of this journal (1[2], 2012), I charted the merlion’s invention and introduction as a logo for Singaporean tourism in the 1960s and its memorialisation as a fountain statue in 1972. After examining a variety of cultural engagements with it during the 1970s-1990s, I concluded by analysing interpretations offered by artists contributing to the 2006 and 2011 Singaporean Biennales. In this follow-up article I explore the extent to which Singaporeans, expatriates and visitors have developed an increasing degree of affection for the figure. As subsequent sections detail, various recent deployments indicate that for some tourists, expatriates and Singaporean nationals, at least, the merlion is now regarded as a symbol that can be used in playful, ironic and/or often personalised manners, such as, most notably, a logo that they are willing to have inscribed on their flesh.

    Singapore, merlion, symbolism, affection, familiarity, tattoos

v6n1, 2017

  1. AbstractKeywords

    Over the last 200 years a number of sandbanks that rise above the surface of the sea or river estuaries for brief periods during low tide points have been site of cricket matches organised by teams based in adjacent coastal areas. The most regular locations for such performances have been the Goodwin Sands (an area of sandbanks located in the English Channel, close to the coast of the English county of Kent) and the Bramble Bank in the Solent. Other locations, such as banks in the River Tamar, have also seen one-off events of this kind. The article identifies these sports occasions as constituting particular forms of temporary territorialisations of space that adapt aspects of the game for the conditions of rapidly changing locations. The annual matches provide an example of the human rendition of spaces as temporary island neighbourhoods, the ephemerality of which is key to their attraction and meaning. Notably, they also involve a return to conventions of traditionally recognised ‘fair play’ in cricket that have significantly diminished in the modern form of the game. In this manner, the temporary spaces of the sandbanks allow for a revival of customs that relate to earlier participatory performance traditions and allow these to be re-affirmed.

    Goodwin Sands, Bramble Bank, Tamar, cricket, territorialisation

  2. AbstractKeywords

    Recently a significant population migration to rural areas has been occurring in relation to both rural and urban areas in Korea. This urban-rural migration is characterized by region. On Jeju Island the number of Return Non-Farm Households provides the overwhelming majority, unlike other regions. This has partially been the result of the geographical location and tourism industry of Jeju Island. This migration tendency is causing a transformation in the rural space. Thus this paper aims to describe and determine how an increase in urban-rural migrants causes commodification of a rural-coastal village, both in terms of the reasons and the processes in order to understand rural spatial transformation by in-migrants. As a result, service activities by in-migrants in Woljeong village are associated with commodification of the village in terms of consumption of the village landscapes. This includes the ocean view and sales of farm lands and houses. Commodification of the village has overheated commercialization of the village space and competition in the same field of business. Finally, a spatial division between the existing ‘spatial practices’ of the village natives and the commercialized place of new stakeholders has occurred. This means that the rural space and identity have transformed in Woljeong-Ri.

    Urban-rural migrants, commodification, spatial transformation, Worljeong-Ri, Jeju Island

  3. AbstractKeywords

    Rottnest Island/Wadjemup is an important cultural landscape where human interaction with natural systems over time has formed a distinctive landscape. It has high degree of heritage significance to the people of Western Australia. Its heritage values include: an exceptional combination of geological and ecological features and processes; significant cultural value for Aboriginal people as its intangible heritage is associated with Dreamtime stories concerning death and the creation of the offshore islands; archaeological evidence of human occupation of the Island prior to its separation from the mainland, possibly dating to 30,000 years ago; a key site in early exploration of Australia by Dutch mariners who landed on the Island and surveyed the coastline in the 17th century; a remarkably intact British colonial outpost and penal establishment dating from the early to mid-nineteenth century; a rare purpose-built Aboriginal prison; shipwrecks around the Island’s seascape and lighthouses on the Island; a key site for Australia’s coastal defence during World War II. Transition to a place of recreation is a tangible illustration of the importance of islands to mainlanders, particularly in providing a strong sense of place. Visible from the metropolitan coastline, the Island has outstanding aesthetic qualities that continue to capture the imagination. Because of its significant history, including its place as what is believed to be the largest Aboriginal deaths in custody site in Australia, and one of the largest Aboriginal burial grounds in the State, the Island has the potential to become an important focal point for reconciliation and healing between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people. This paper will show how using the concept of a cultural landscape, the management authority is implementing an integrated planning system for the Island which will assist in respecting all heritage values but acknowledge the previously hidden Indigenous beliefs and painful Aboriginal history of incarceration.

    Cultural landscape, heritage management, Aboriginal history, reconciliation

  4. AbstractKeywords

    The aim of the study is to analyze the diversity of exotic plant species in a small tourist island in Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara. A field study was conducted at Gili Trawangan and Gili Air, West Nusa Tenggara. Tourism is the main activity in these islands, buttourism infrastructure development, garden landscaping and theintroduction of exotic plant species have caused dramatic changes in the vegetation of these small islands. A total of 108 non-native plant species of 44 families was recorded, demonstrating the high number of exotic plant species that have been introduced. The family with the highest number of species was Fabaceae, followed by Asparagaceae, Arecaceae, Apocynaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Anacardiaceae, and Myrtaceae. Native plant species have decreased as a consequence of tourism infrastructure development. Exotic plant species represent culturally and economically important resources in Gili Trawangan and Gili Air. Many native species in Gili are useful for food, construction material, ornaments, remedies, and forage. Exotic plant species are planted as ornaments, as well as for shade, ground cover, hedges and fences, and as focal points. Some important aspects should be considered in order to minimize the impact of exotic plant species upon native ecosystems, including plant species regulation, plant monitoring, and restoration of degraded habitats and encouraging the growth of local flora as acomponent of garden landscaping in the tourism infrastructure. Sustainable gardening may consist of establishing an agroforestry system to guarantee continuing small island ecosystems and rehabilitating the abandoned farmlands.

    exotic plant species, tourism risk, sustainable small island, Lesser Sunda

v5n2, 2016

  1. Forthcoming

v5n1, 2016

  1. Forthcoming

v4n2, 2015

  1. Forthcoming

v4n1, 2015

  1. Forthcoming

v3n2, 2014

  1. Forthcoming

v3n1, 2014

  1. Forthcoming

v2n2, 2013

  1. Forthcoming

v2n1, 2013

  1. Forthcoming

v1n2, 2012

  1. Forthcoming

v1n1, 2012

  1. Forthcoming